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EXPLANATION ONTOLOGY: A MODEL OF EXPLANATIONS FOR USER-CENTERED AI

Shruthi Chari1, Oshani Seneviratne1, Daniel M. Gruen2, Morgan Foreman2, Deborah L. McGuinness1, Amar K. Das2

1Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute | 2IBM Research, Cambridge

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Abstract

Explainability has been a goal for Artificial Intelligence systems since their conception, with the need for explanations only growing as machine learning models are increasingly used in critical settings such as healthcare. Currently, explanations are often treated as a nice-to-have feature added in a post-hoc manner. With greater adoption of these systems and emphasis on user-centric explainability, there is a need for a structured representation that treats explainability as a primary consideration, mapping end user needs to specfic explanation types. We design an explanations ontology to formalize the generation of explanations in a machine-readable format, accounting for the system and user attributes in the process. Within our ontology, we support the modeling of different literature-derived explanation types, whose requirements and generational needs were further refined through a requirements gathering exercise conducted with clinicians. Through this ontology, we hope to benefit system designers to include explanation generation facilities in their systems. We evaluate our ontology via competency questions that are inspired by learnings from our clinical requirements gathering exercise and are geared towards a system designer who might use our ontology to learn about the best explanation types to include, given a combination of users' needs and a system's capabilities, both in real-time and system design settings.


List of Resources 


Tools Used during Development

Publications

  • Explanation Ontology: A Model of Explanations for User-Centered AI; Shruthi Chari , Oshani Seneviratne , Daniel M. Gruen , Morgan A. Foreman , Amar K. Das, Deborah L. McGuinness; Resource Track,19th International Semantic Web Conference 2020
  • Explanation Ontology in Action: A Clinical Use-Case; Shruthi Chari , Oshani Seneviratne , Daniel M. Gruen , Morgan A. Foreman , Amar K. Das, Deborah L. McGuinness; Posters and Demo Track,19th International Semantic Web Conference 2020